“But now, for the first time in its history, gardening has taken on a role that transcends the needs of the gardener.” — Doug Tallamy
I’ve always been glad I planted prairie in my backyard. But perhaps never so much as this summer, when I, like other Illinois residents, am spending a lot more time at home.
My suburban backyard 20 miles west of Chicago is less than a quarter of an acre, and bordered closely on all sides by some of the 300-plus homes in our subdivision. Our yard lies downslope of two others, and is often wet—if not downright swampy. When Jeff and I moved here, there were giant arborvitae, a few yews, and not much else. Gardening was difficult. After removing most of the Arborvitae and all the yews, we planted a border of prairie plants across the backyard. Their deep roots helped absorb some of the water.
Over the years, we’ve added numerous raised beds for vegetable gardening…
…a small pond, and a mixture of native plants and favorite non-natives. I confess to a passion for zinnias; the butterflies, bees, and hummingbirds go crazy over them.
Our goal has become one suggested by University of Delaware Professor of Entomology Doug Tallamy: plant at least 70% of your yard (by biomass) with trees, shrubs, flowers, and grasses native to your area. Why? It will nourish wildlife. When we plant, we try to keep insects and wildlife in mind. What plants are good nectar sources? How might we attract more butterflies? Which plants have good seeds for birds? Which plants are host plants for moth caterpillars?
Diversity. We try to think about different plant heights, bloom times, and mixing a kaleidoscope of colors and shapes and bloom sizes in the yard. July is a good month to step outside and sit on the patio for a while. Observe. See what is working. What’s not working. Let’s take a look.
Currently, queen of the prairie at the back of the yard is a showstopper. That pink! And so tall—over six feet. Although the flowers have no nectar, they offer pollen to flies and beetles.
A pawpaw tree behind the prairie patch is a host plant for zebra swallowtail butterflies and the pawpaw sphinx moth.
I’ve not observed either of these in our yard, but I’m on the lookout! Meanwhile, it’s the eastern black swallowtails I see, drawn to the blazing star blooms by the patio.
Culver’s root lights its flower candles in the prairie patch each July—the white so bright against the green! Bees of all kinds love it, as do moths, wasps, and butterflies.
Nearby are the velvet flame-petals of cardinal flowers. Their bright scarlet screams across the yard. Look at us! We can’t tear our eyes away. Red is an unusual color for prairie plants, and I watch for these in July, fingers crossed. Sometimes they jump from place to place in the yard. Some years they’ve disappeared altogether. A few weeks ago I wondered if they were still around. And then—here they are.
The hummingbirds love cardinal flowers. So do the swallowtails. And, when the cardinal flowers bloom, I begin anticipating the great blue lobelia, another favorite, which blooms a few weeks later.
Each lobelia, a close relative of cardinal flower, is a magnet for hummingbirds and butterflies. They mingle together along the edges of my small pond.
Cupplant just popped into bloom this week; sunny yellow flowers towering over my head. The plants’ joined leaves hold moisture and create a favorite watering hole for goldfinches after a rain or a particularly dewy morning.
We have a saying in our prairie group: “Friends don’t give friends cup plant!” It’s such an aggressive plant in the right garden conditions, spreading every which way and dominating the prairie patch. Then, I see a bright goldfinch drinking from the cupped leaves in the summer or enjoying the seeds in the fall. It quenches my resolve to dig them up.
Today, I spy a monarch, nectaring on the blooms. Yes. I think I’ll keep cup plants around.
Near the cup plants are masses of joe pye weed, which hint at the promise of a flower show in August. The blooms will be a big draw for the yellow tiger swallowtails that wing their way through our backyard.
Wild bergamot—both the native Monarda fistulosa in lavender….
…and an unknown species — likely a close relative of Monarda didyma--given to me by a friend, lure the hummingbird moths at dusk.
Bees love both species. Me too.
By the patio, the gray-headed coneflowers mingle with a wild asparagus plant, the ferny leaves shooting over my head.
The asparagus came up wild; likely from a seed dropped by the birds at our eight bird feeding stations. Or maybe we should call them squirrel feeding stations? These bird feeders, plus the native plants with their maturing seedheads in the fall, the water in our small pond, and heated birdbath in winter are a big draw for birds.
The pond is a magnet for dragonflies and damselflies, including this great spreadwing damselfly sighted last season. I’d never seen it on the larger prairies where I monitor dragonflies, so what a delight to find it—right here, in my own small backyard.
I’m on the lookout for it this month, but so far, it has eluded me. I commit to spending more time, sitting by the pond, just quietly looking.
Along the edges of the patio, well-behaved prairie dropseed forms beautiful clumps next to the second-year new jersey tea shrub. In August, the prairie dropseed sends up sprays of seeds that smell of buttered popcorn. It’s not a smell to everyone’s taste, but I love it.
You can see my backyard is a little bit messy, a jumble of natives and non-natives, lawn and prairie. Weeds? You bet. Our lawn is a mix of species, from clover to violets to oregono and wild strawberries. The rabbits approve. But not everyone in my neighborhood understands.
It’s important to me that my neighbors see our intentions for the yard—and not just see it as a jumble of plants. I want to woo them away from their drug rugs (as conservationists like my neighbor Jerry Wilhelm calls chemically treated lawns) and toward a more healthy yard. For this reason, we have several signs, including a Monarch Way Station from Monarch Watch and a Conservation at Home sign from The Conservation Foundation. I hope when they see the signs, and the butterflies, birds, and blooms, they’ll be a little curious. What’s going on over there?
I want them to know: Prairies are one of the most fragile, nuanced, and diverse places on earth. Full of amazing creatures and interesting plants.
Every year, our yard moves a little closer to being more healthy. We’ve still got a long way to go. But the journey of bringing prairie home is a marvelous adventure, full of beautiful surprises.
It all starts with a single plant.
The opening quote is from Bringing Nature Home: How You Can Sustain Wildlife with Native Plants by Doug Tallamy. Wild Ones Native Landscapers recently put on a webinar with Tallamy that emphasized the need for at least 70% biomass of native plants in yards in order to sustain insects, birds, and the natural world. We’re still working on our yard—and we still have a long way to go. You, too?
All photos copyright Cindy Crosby and taken this week at her backyard in Glen Ellyn, IL , unless designated otherwise (top to bottom): red-spotted purple butterfly (Limenitis arthemis astyanax ), Schulenberg Prairie Savanna, The Morton Arboretum, Lisle, IL; raised garden beds (thanks to John Heneghan, carpenter extraordinaire!); ruby-throated hummingbird (Archilochus colubris) on zinnias (Zinniz elegans) (photo from 2019); backyard planting mix of natives and non-natives; queen of the prairie (Filipendula rubra); queen of the prairie (Filipendula rubra) with a pawpaw tree (Asimina triloba) behind it; eastern black swallowtail (Papilio polyxenes asterius) on blazing star (Liatris spp.); Culver’s root (Veronicastrum virginicum); cardinal flower (Lobelia cardinalis); great blue lobelia (Lobelia siphilitica) with Peck’s skipper (Polites peckius) (photo from August 2019); cup plants (Silphium perfoliatum); cup plants (Silphium perfoliatum) with monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus); Joe Pye weed (Eutrochium purpureum); mixed natives and non-natives; unknown monarda, received as a gift (possibly Monarda didyma?) with hummingbird clearwing moth (Hemaris thysbe); bee balm (Monarda fistulosa) and unknown bumblebee (Bombus spp.); grayheaded coneflower (Ratibida pinnata) and wild asparagus (Asparagus officinalis); author’s backyard pond; great spreadwing damselfly (Archilestes grandis), photo from 2019); prairie dropseed (Sporobolus heterolepis) and New Jersey tea (Ceanothus americanus); nodding wild onions (Allium cernuum); July on the Schulenberg Prairie, The Morton Arboretum, Lisle, IL.
I’m grateful to the Wild Ones Native Landscapers for their work with homeowners and native plant gardening in suburban yards, and The Conservation Foundation for helping gardeners make our yards healthier and more wildlife-friendly. Thanks also to John Ayres for the cardinal flower seeds that helped me increase my population. Thank you to Tricia Lowery for the liatris and unknown monarda. Both are pollinator magnets!
Discover “Tallgrass Prairie Ethnobotany Online” –through The Morton Arboretum! Did you know the prairie was once the source of groceries, medicine, and love charms? Join Cindy for two Friday mornings online, July 31 and August 7, (9-11 a.m.) and learn how people have used and enjoyed prairie plants through history — and today! Spend the week in between on your own, exploring and identifying plants on the prairies of your choice. Register here.
“Tallgrass Prairie Ecology Online” –begin a new session in September! Work from home at your own pace (with suggested assignment deadlines) for 60 days to complete the material, and meet other prairie volunteers and stewards on the discussion boards and in the optional Zoom session. Register here.
Just released! Chasing Dragonflies: A Natural, Cultural, and Personal History. Order now from your favorite indie bookstore such as the Morton Arboretum Store and The Bookstore of Glen Ellyn, or online at bookshop.org and other book venues. Order direct through Northwestern University Press and receive 40% off this new book and/or “The Tallgrass Prairie: An Introduction”— use coupon code SUN40. Thank you for supporting small presses, bookstores, and writers during this chaotic time.
Want more prairie? Follow Cindy on Facebook, Twitter (@phrelanzer) and Instagram (@phrelanzer). Or enjoy some virtual trips to the prairie through reading Tallgrass Conversations: In Search of the Prairie Spirit and The Tallgrass Prairie: An Introduction.
Love your garden – thanks for sharing!
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Thank you for reading and taking time to leave a note, Mary! Grateful.
I love seeing your garden too! I’ve just been trying to get myself to sit down and do a similar post to show what’s happening in my yard. Interesting that your cardinal flower blooms before the blue lobelia…it’s the opposite in my yard. Blue lobelia bloomed a couple weeks ago and the cardinal flower is just looking like it’s ready to pop.
Also, I need a pond!!!!
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So interesting about your lobelia, Kim! I wonder if we have different species. Mine is Lobelia silphilitica; it is usually an August bloomer here. The pond has been the heart of my small backyard — you will love it, if you decide to dig one. Happy gardening, and I’ll look forward to your next blog post! Thank you again for all the interviews you gave me for the new book. Grateful to know a kindred spirit in Ohio!
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Mine is L. siphilitica too…hmm. I should note that not all of mine is blooming yet, just some of it. And I just looked back at my photos from last year (the first year I had these plants), and both the cardinal flower and blue lobelia were in bloom in mid- to late August. I’ve got both of them in a very narrow border along my back sidewalk, where they’re between the sidewalk and a fence, and they’re mostly shaded. I’ve got a couple other blue lobelia plants in a sunny, sandy bed and they haven’t shown signs of blooms yet. So interesting to watch how plants behave in different conditions!
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I’ve only got dappled shade, but I REALLY would like to try Cardinal Flowers. Cindy, did you start your’s initially from seed? I sowed some in May and nothing 😦 sigh
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Hello, Mike! Cardinal flower is such a spectacular plant in the home garden. I have tried it both ways — from seeds and from plugs. It seems to take a while from seed to get going, so don’t despair! I thought I had lost my cardinal flower a couple of years ago, and then it popped up again. Try Prairie Moon Nursery’s bare root plants in the spring. Be sure you give it a LOT of water; mine does well because my backyard is so wet. I don’t think dappled shade is an issue; I’ve seen it growing in that kind of light (the Blue Lobelia also). If you have a local native plant sale that’s a good place to source plugs in the spring (that’s where I got mine) or a friend that has Cardinal flower for seeds (I got mine from John Ayres — thanks, John!). Have fun, and let me know how it goes! These things take time….. thanks for reading, and for taking a moment to drop me a note! Always good to hear from you. — Cindy 🙂
Your blog has been part of my Tuesday morning coffee ritual for quite some time now. I’ve been a member at The Morton Arboretum for many years and have photographed the grounds extensively, and I especially enjoy your perspective on Schulenberg Prairie. This latest blog entry hit home with me. Like you, I’m not at 70% biomass of native plants in my home landscape yet, but I’m working on it. Replacing the boring shrubs with native prairie plants is the best thing I could have done. The first thing I noticed was how my yard was suddenly alive with birds, bees, butterflies and dragonflies. So entertaining! I’m convinced my native plantings are responsible for the birds that have begun nesting in the houses I’ve made and put up. Two years ago a pair of chickadees successfully raised a batch of babies. Last year a pair of house wrens raised two batches, and this year the wrens are currently working on their second batch. If only more homeowners would incorporate native plants into their landscape. Maybe if local nurseries were required to carry native plants and trees almost exclusively?
Thanks for making my Tuesday mornings so enjoyable! Your back yard is gorgeous!
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Hello, Mark —
What a lovely, lovely note — I’m sitting at my kitchen table reading it with my cup of joe, and thanking you for the encouraging words. I needed them this morning. The Morton Arboretum is a wonderful place! I’m so grateful for it, and the prairie there. Chickadee babies! I am envious. We still lack trees in our yard, and I’m trying to rectify that. We have a ginkgo in our front yard that I realize does NOTHING for wildlife! I need to seriously begin working on my shrubs and trees. I appreciate The Growing Place in Naperville — they have developed a very nice native plant section. Prairie Moon Nursery has also been a great place for seeds and bare root plants. Thank you for your kind words this morning. Now, I should go out and do some weeding–everything went crazy in the heat this week — including the zucchini and the more pernicious weeds! Thanks for reading, and for dropping me a note. — Cindy 🙂
First time reading your blog…Awesome! I am so excited to get started on my garden!
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Hello, Andra, and “nice to meet you!” Thanks for reading the blog. I’m so grateful you took time to do so, and to drop me a note. I hope you are having fun with your garden — it is a lifelong adventure. I never get tired of seeing what is growing, changing, and the new butterflies, moths, birds, and dragonflies that drop by. Good luck, and thank you for taking a moment to say hi! — Cindy 🙂